Ubukhulu bamandla kaNkulunkulu UMUNTU ONGAPHELI ANGAYENZA KANJANI INTO ENGENZI LUTHO? U-Aaron Joseph Hackett | Ifilosofi | 0 5 / 04 /20

UNkulunkulu uyakhuluma, izinto ziyenzeka

 

Abaningi bethu bayayazi le ndaba kaGenesise. Ukuthi uNkulunkulu wadala konke ngezinsuku eziyisithupha kwathi ngosuku lwesikhombisa waphumula. Wake wazibuza kuwe, ukuthi ngubani uNkulunkulu? Unamandla angakanani futhi kungenzeka kanjani ukudala umkhathi? UNkulunkulu uyisidalwa esihlukile kuye kuphela. Akekho amanye amabutho angaphandle amsizayo ekudaleni indawo yonke. Ngakho-ke, uNkulunkulu ungukuphela kwendalo eyaziwayo. Ake sehlise uGenesise Isahluko sokuqala.

 

UGenesise 1: 1-5 “Ekuqaleni uNkulunkulu wadala amazulu nomhlaba. Umhlaba wawungenasimo futhi ungenalutho, ubumnyama babukhona ebusweni bokujula; UMoya kaNkulunkulu wayehamba phezu kobuso bamanzi. Futhi uNkulunkulu wathi, “Makukhanye”; kwaba khona ukukhanya. Futhi uNkulunkulu wabona ukuthi ukukhanya kwakukuhle; futhi uNkulunkulu wahlukanisa ukukhanya nobumnyama. UNkulunkulu wabiza ukukhanya ngokuthi iMini, nobumnyama wabubiza ngokuthi Ubusuku. Futhi kwakukhona kusihlwa futhi kwaba ngukusa, ngolunye usuku ” .

Ukuba khona kwendalo edaliwe “kufakwe ngokwemvelo”. Ekujuleni kwenhliziyo yethu, siyazi ukuthi kukhona okukhona. Asazi ukuthi uNkulunkulu “umkhulu” kangakanani ngezindlela zokulinganisa, futhi akekho noyedwa owabona ubuso bukaNkulunkulu ukunikeza incazelo ngaye. Sizobona uNkulunkulu kuphela, uma nje sifika ezulwini futhi simjabulele ngombono weBeatific. Manje umuntu angasho kuwe, “uma ngingenakumbona uNkulunkulu, ngakho-ke akekho” Ngoba angikwazi ukubona i-DNA yami ngamehlo ami anqunu, akususani iqiniso, ukuthi nginohlobo oluthile lwe-DNA enikezwe engikudalile. Sithola ukuqonda uNkulunkulu ngomqondo wokulinganisa. USanta Thomas Aquinas kwi-Summa Theologica yakhe ethi “Umphostoli uthi:” Izinto ezingabonakali kuYe zibonakala ngokucacile, ziqondakala ngezinto ezenziweyo “(KwabaseRoma 1:20). Kepha lokhu bekungeke kube ngaphandle kokuthi ubukhona bukaNkulunkulu bungabonakaliswa ngezinto ezenziwe; ngoba okokuqala kufanele sazi noma yini ukuthi ikhona.

 

Ngiphendula ukuthi, Ukukhombisa kungenziwa ngezindlela ezimbili: Eyokuqala yimbangela, futhi ibizwa ngokuthi “yi-priori,” futhi lokhu ukuphikisana nalokhu okwandulelayo ngokuphelele. Enye ingumphumela, futhi ubizwa ngokuthi yisiboniso “posterori”; Lokhu ukuphikisana nalokho okuphambi kwethu kuphela. Lapho umphumela waziwa kangcono kithi kunesizathu sawo, ukusuka kumphumela siqhubeka olwazini lw imbangela. Futhi kuyo yonke imiphumela ukuba khona kwesizathu saso esifanele kungakhonjiswa, inqobo nje uma imiphumela yaso isaziwa kangcono; ngoba njengoba wonke umphumela uncike kumbangela yawo, uma umphumela ukhona, imbangela kufanele ibe khona. Ngakho-ke ubukhona bukaNkulunkulu, kuze kufike lapho kungabonakali kithi, bungabonakala kulabo bemiphumela Yakhe esaziwa ngathi.[1] Unkulunkulu kimi uyisidalwa, simsulwa kangangokuba angizwisisi yena, kodwa ubukhona bakhe obukhulu busizungezile. Ungumuntu futhi onguPure. Sichaza ingqangi njengento. Lokhu kusho ukuthi uNkulunkulu, uhlukile, kolunye uhlobo, angeke aphindwe. Lokhu akufani kumzimba wami nasemphefumulweni wami, ngoba zombili izinhlobo ezihlukene kakhulu zokuphila, kodwa basebenza ngokubambisana ukwenza kimi, mina. Umphefumlo wami usebenza ngokubambisana nomzimba wami wenyama, ngoba unikeza amandla ekusebenzeni kwami ​​ngokomqondo wenyama, futhi ngaphandle komphefumlo wami, into engokomzimba womzimba wami ibingenakuba nokunyakaza futhi kungaba yigobolondo nje elingenalutho. Umphefumlo wami usiza ukunginika amandla okuhambahamba, udle futhi usebenze nsuku zonke empilweni. UNkulunkulu akadingi umzimba ukuze usebenze, kodwa ngamazwi akhe, umhlaba uqobo ungaba khona. Umuntu angacabanga kuphela ukuthi ingqondo kaNkulunkulu inkulu kangakanani. Cabanga ngeLanga ngokwesibonelo. Ngokusekwe ocwaningweni lukaMnu Ron Kurtus, Siyazi ukuthi ilanga “liqukethe cishe i-70% Hydrogen, 28% Helium ne-2% yezinsimbi ezinjenge-iron. Ezinye izici ukujikeleza kwazo, izinga lokushisa kanye nemisebe. ” [2] Siyazi futhi ukuthi ilanga lingama-15,600,000 c enkabeni yalo. Kulungile-ke uma isayensi ingafakazela ifomula ethile yezibalo ukuchaza ukusebenza kwelanga, ngakho-ke akumele kube khona uNkulunkulu. Ngiyagomela ukuthi noma singakwazi ukuthola izibalo ukuthi ungakanani ubukhulu belanga, noma ubukhulu obungakanani beLanga buqhathaniswa nomhlaba, lokho akusuki emcabangweni wokuthi kungani isimo selanga sadalwa ngendlela kungukuthi, noma kungani sidinga ilanga ukuze izitshalo zikhule, zinikeze ukufudumala kubantu. Ilanga alizange “liphume ndawo”. Ngingasho ukuthi uma ilanga seliphumile kungasho lutho, kungani lingakaphumi njengesimo senyoni, kungani lishisa noma ngazi kanjani ukuthi kubalulekile kimi ?

 

Ukuhlaba umxhwele komhlaba njengoba unazo zonke izinsiza esezincike namuhla nakho akuyona “ingozi”. Unkulunkulu wahlukanisa amanzi wenza isibhakabhaka nolwandle. Ukwenza into kungaba kanjani ukwahlukanisa ngokomzimba futhi kwenza i-Sky nolwandle? Izazi zezinkanyezi zithole ukuthi indawo yonke ubukhulu becala yayiyi-hydrogen ne-helium ( helium hydride ion ( HeH +)[3] , Le molekyuli yayingumthombo wamandla endaweni yonke. Ngokusekelwe ekutheni le molekyuli yayihamba ngokushesha kangakanani, kungenzeka yini ukuthi yaqhubeka nokuphoqelela le molekyuli yamanzi ngaphandle ngokukhipha umoya-mpilo? I-H2O yincane kakhulu yamamolekyuli. Ngakho, ungakwazi kungenzeka ngeso lengqondo indlela ketshezi ezisindayo is, uqhathanise igesi. Njengoba singawuboni umphunga, lokhu kungachaza kalula ukuthi kwenziwa kanjani ngokwemvelo? Ngabe lawo mandla afanayo ahlukanisa izulu nolwandle?   Isazi sefilosofi uDavid Hume sithi “Njengesazi sefilosofi, ukube bengikhuluma nezilaleli zefilosofi engicacile kufanele ukuthi kufanele ngizichaze njengomuntu ongakholelwa kuNkulunkulu, ngoba angicabangi ukuthi kukhona ukungqubuzana okuphelele umuntu angakufakazela ukuthi akasiye uNkulunkulu.

 

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma ngizodlulisa umbono ofanele kumuntu ojwayelekile osemgwaqweni ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele ngithi angakholelwa ekuthini akekho uNkulunkulu, ngoba lapho ngithi angikwazi ukufakazela ukuthi uNkulunkulu akekho, kufanele engeza ngokulinganayo ukuthi angikwazi ukufakazela ukuthi abekho onkulunkulu baseHomeeric. ” Lokhu bekungangitshela ukuthi into ethize nje ukuthi izule nje laphaya futhi wenze izinto zenzeke, kuwukucabanga kwami ​​nje. Isayensi isanda kuchaza ukuthi kwenzeke kanjani lo mcimbi futhi ifakazela ukuthi asimdingi uNkulunkulu ozokwenza isibhakabhaka nolwandle nokuba nomhlaba owomile uvele. Konke kwenzeke ngokushesha futhi ukuzizwa kwendawo yonke kwenziwe ngendlela ngokulandelana kwayo . Ngenxa yokuntuleka kwesizathu esanele, abukho ubufakazi bokuthi uNkulunkulu noma yimuphi omunye umuntu waba nengxenye kulo mcimbi emlandweni wezulu nomhlaba.

Mina ngabe ekuphikiseni David Hume futhi bathi ngisho lo mcimbi ngokomzimba iphutha endleleni wawungaqhubeka uhamba, futhi thina awuboni, akusho ukuthi uNkulunkulu wayengathokozi khona ukwenza kwenzeke ed . Uphonsa emhlabeni “big-bang theory nje ” a s a isizathu lesi senzakalo ngokomzimba ukuthatha indawo futhi ngokwanele . Yini edale ukuthi lokhu kuqale ngisho? Okuthile nje bekufanele kufake lokhu. Ukuze lemizimba emibili yamanzi ihlukane ngokwayo, ayimeli ngezinyawo zayo zombili. U-Saint Thomas Aquinas uhlanganyela impendulo yakhe kulo mbuzo wezimbangela zangaphandle ezihlala zisebenza. “Indlela yokuqala nesobala kakhulu ingxabano yokuqhamuka. Kuqinisekile, futhi kuyabonakala ezinqondweni zethu, ukuthi emhlabeni kunezinto ezithile ezihambahambayo. Manje konke okunyakazayo kufakwa ngomunye, ngoba akukho lutho olungahambi ngaphandle kokuthi kungenzeka kokuya kulokho okuqhubekele kukho; kanti into ihamba njengoba isisenzo. Ukuze ukunyakaza akulutho ngaphandle kokwehliswa kokuthile kusuka kumandla kuya kwangempela. Kepha akukho okungancishiswa kusuka kumandla kuya kwangempela, ngaphandle kokuthile okuyisimo seqiniso. Ngakho-ke lokho okushisa impela, njengomlilo, kwenza izinkuni, okushisa ngokungathi zishise, bese ziyasusa futhi ziyiguqule. Manje akunakwenzeka ukuthi into efanayo kufanele ibe ngesikhathi esisodwa ngokoqobo kanye nekhono ngendlela efanayo, kodwa kuphela ezicini ezihlukile. Ngoba lokho okushisayo empeleni akunakushushuka ngasikhathi sinye; kepha kuyabanda ngesikhathi esifanayo. Ngakho-ke akunakwenzeka ukuthi ngokuhambisana nangendlela efanayo into kufanele ibe yimbili futhi ihanjiswe, okusho ukuthi kufanele izishukumise ngokwayo. Ngakho-ke, noma yini esebenzayo kufanele iqhutshwe ngomunye. Uma lokho okufakwa yisiqubulo kufakwe ngokwakho, khona-ke futhi lokhu kufanele kudingidwe omunye, nokuthi kuphinde kwenziwe ngomunye. Kepha lokhu ngeke kuqhubeke kokuya phezulu, ngoba-ke bekungeke kube khona okuhamba kuqala, futhi, ngenxa yalokho, akukho okunye ukuhambisa; ukubona ukuthi abaphambukeli abalandela baqhubekela phambili njengoba benyakaziswa umhambisi wokuqala; njengoba udondolo luhamba kuphela ngoba lufakwa ngesandla. Ngakho-ke, kuyadingeka ukufika endaweni yokuqala, ungafakwa enye; futhi wonke umuntu uyaqonda ukuthi unguNkulunkulu. ” [4]

 

Yimaphi amanye amandla enza indawo yonke? Ngabe sikhona esinye isidalwa esiphakeme esasebenza eceleni kukaNkulunkulu, njengomfowethu esingamawele noma kungaba khona ukuhlanganiswa kwemicimbi yemvelo namandla angaphezu kwawemvelo edala indawo yonke njengoba sazi? Ngokucacile, iBig Bang nayo ingasho ukuzalwa komkhathi obonakalayo uqobo – lapho into ethile iguqukile, iqala izenzakalo eziholele namuhla. UGeorge Lemaître , isazi semvelo saseBelgium , wasebenzisa imininingwane evela ku-Edwin Hubble ukuchaza indlela umkhathi onwebeka ngayo. [5] Ukusuka ebhungweni eliya emgodini omkhulukazi, umkhathi wethu ungomunye wabaningi futhi ososayensi basafuna ukujula komthala wethu kuya kweminye imithala engahle ibe khona. Lawa magasi ashisayo akha onke lawa ma-elektroni, ama-proton nama-athomu aqala ukwakha umhlaba, iplanethi, umoya, amanzi nokunye, lokhu kuzosekela inkolelo-mbono yokuziphendukela kwemvelo yokuthi kukhona okuvelayo okungaveli ndawo futhi le micimbi engalawulwa idale ubukhona bethu obaziwayo. Lawa ma-athomu adale izinhlobo zezinto ezivakashelwa ezinhle kakhulu (ezingabantu, izitshalo, izinkanyezi, isikhala) nakho konke nje okuqale ukwakheka endaweni yakhe. Ngakho-ke, uma ukholelwa entweni ethile, khona-ke lo mcimbi ubuzothathwa njengobufakazi bokuthi uNkulunkulu udinga usizo noma ukuthi lo mcimbi ongaziwa uzoba nguNkulunkulu. Njengombana umcimbi lo ubulinganisa ungabheka okunye “ubukhona”, lokho kuyamenza uNkulunkulu alinganiselwe emandleni akhe wokudala? Ubufakazi besibili bokuthi uNkulunkulu ukhona, bungathathwa ku- Summa Theologiae (Prima Pars Q.3) “Indlela yesibili ivela esimweni sesizathu esisebenzayo. Emhlabeni wokuqonda sithola ukuthi kukhona ukuhleleka kwezimbangela ezisebenzayo. Alikho icala elaziwayo (futhi alikho, ngokweqiniso, elingenzeka) lapho into etholakala iyimbangela ephumelelayo yayo uqobo; ngoba ngakho kuzoba ngaphambi kwaso uqobo, okungenakwenzeka. Manje kwizimbangela ezisebenzayo akwenzeki ukuqhubeka ku-infinity, ngoba kuzo zonke izimbangela ezilandelanayo ezilandelanayo ngokulandelana, eyokuqala imbangela yezimbangela eziphakathi nendawo, futhi ophakathi nendawo yimbangela yembangela enkulu, noma ngabe imbangela yakhona ibe yimbalwa , noma munye kuphela. Manje ukususa imbangela kukususa umphumela. Ngakho-ke, uma kungekho imbangela yokuqala phakathi kwezimbangela ezisebenzayo, ngeke kube khona imbangela yangempela, noma yisiphi isizathu esiphakathi. Kepha uma ngezimbangela ezifanele kungenzeka ukuthi uqhubeke usulele, ngeke kube nesizathu sokuqala esisebenzayo, futhi ngeke kube nomphumela wokugcina, noma yiziphi izimbangela ezifanele; konke okusobala kungamanga. Ngakho- ke kubalulekile ukuvuma imbangela yokuqala efanelekayo, wonke umuntu ayinika igama likaNkulunkulu. ”

Lo mbono kubonakala sengathi ukuba besekela U-Immanuel Kant, isiJalimane sefilosofi, ngoba “Singase singakusho wazi ngokoqobo uqobo” . Njengoba abantu babengekho ekuqaleni kokudalwa kwesikhathi nendawo, lo mbono ongabonakali kaDkt Lemaître , uzwakala kahle ngoba lezi zinto ziyasithinta ngosuku lwethu lwanamuhla. Sidinga ilanga ukuze lifudumale, likhule ukudla, lisize isitshalo ngokuthola ikhabhoni dioksijini kusuka emvelweni bese sisebenzisa ukukhanya kwelanga ukuthola amandla alo ( photosynthesis ) [6] . Sithuthukise ubuchwepheshe bokusebenzisa amandla elanga futhi siyakwazi ukudala ugesi, ie. La mava omqondo azizwa yithi, futhi yile ndlela yokuqonda kwethu ukucubungula ulwazi oluza emandleni ethu okucabanga. Ngokwami, akunikezeli isisekelo esiqinile kimi sokuthi kukhona amanye amandla asebenza noNkulunkulu ukwenza indawo yonke yaziwe. Mina imbongolo yesiza isigqoko ukuze ufuna ukuqonda lo “umbono” ukuba yiqiniso kwendaba, bese lokho kwakuyobonisa ubuthakathaka kaNkulunkulu eBhayibhelini. Kungasho ukuthi akayena amandla onke, akazi konke futhi unamandla. Lokhu kuzophika futhi ukuthi noma yikuphi ukucwaninga ngemetaphysics kuzobe kungenamsebenzi, ngoba njengoba kungasekelwa “kumaqiniso aqinile esayensi”, ukusesha iqiniso kuzofanela kususelwe ekuchazeni imicabango yethu yengqondo. Ubunjalo bokuthi uNkulunkulu ukhona unakho ukwenza okuthile kumandla asevele ebeke ukuba asebenze. Njengoba ukunyakaza kungasuki ngalutho, kunokuthile okufanele “ukukucindezele” ukuze kuhanjwe konke. “Umthetho wokuqala kaNewton uthi yonke into izohlala endaweni yokuphumula noma ihambisane umfaniswano ngokuqondile ngaphandle kokuthi iphoqelelwe ukuthi iguqule umbuso wayo ngokwenza into yangaphandle.” Uma kwakungekho umoya ukuba bathuthe amanzi, can olwandle umkhiqizo imisinga ku yayo siqu? Akunakuba nokunyakaza uma kungekho lutho olusebenzayo. Ukulandela umgomo wesizathu esanele, uFr. Clarke SJ encwadini yakhe ethi “The One and The Many” pg. Kuchaza ukuthi “Yonke into eqala ukuba khona idinga imbangela” .  Ukuba khona kwethu kusekelwe ekutheni uNkulunkulu wasidala ukuba sihlanganyele othandweni lwakhe futhi sijabulele izinto ngokuhleleka kwakhe. Ukuba ngumuntu omsulwa,


[1] ISumma Theologiae: Ukuba khona KukaNkulunkulu (Ama-Prima Pars, Q.2)

[2] https://www.school-for-chcol.com/astronomy/sun.htm#.XrAoC6hKiUk

[3] https://skyandtelescope.org/astronomy-news/astronomers-find-universes-first-molecule/

[4] ISumma Theologiae: Ukuphila KukaNkulunkulu (Imithombo ye-Prima, Q.3)

https://www.livescience.com/65700-big-bang-theory.html

[5]

[6] https://sciiling.com/why-do-plants-need-sun-4572051.html

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